Essay

Book printing and periodicals in Irkutsk

The first time a word was printed in Irkutsk in the late XVIII century. In 1785 (record in the annals) the typographical devices with all accessories for two machine tools" were brought in the city ". The same year the first regional printing house was opened in Irkutsk. On August 22 1804 one more printing house, in 1814 – the third one… were opened

Then a lithography of a known merchant, enlightenment propagandist and patron of arts N.V.Pesterev and first private(individual) printing house N.N.Sinizyn appeared in Irkutsk. To the early XX century the city had totaled more than ten printing houses.

Irkutsk was one of the first Siberian cities, where first local periodic editions were issued. The first newspaper became "Irkutsk regional news", weekly official newspaper, which was being published for 61 years from 1857 to October 1919. On November 2 1919 it was renamed in "The Sheets of Irkutsk region". In different years the newspaper was edited by N.A.Speshnev, since March 11 1859 - M.V.Zagoskin, since January 23 1860 - A.P.Schapov (official department), M.aslovskii (informal department), since 1890 - N.P.Schastin, since 1900 - A.I.Vinogradov (up to 1905). Later a chief of a Newspaper table took this position.

In 1861 the first private (individual) newspaper in Irkutsk - "Amur" appeared. It came off the press weekly on Tuesdays, in 1861-1862 - on Tuesdays and Saturdays. The authors of the newspaper were the political exiled, living in Irkutsk. It was stopped in April 1862. The editor was M.V.Zagoskin.

"Amur" - one of the first newspapers of the Eastern Siberia Eparchial news of Irkutsk

The large importance for spiritual life of the region had the magazine "Irkutsk Eparchy news", came off the press since 1863 twice a month. News about church life of Irkutsk and Eparchy were published here, and in "Additions" to each release - historical-archival materials and researches about the Orthodox faith set up of Siberia here were put. The magazine was published for 55 years. It was closed in 1918. The editors of the magazine were church figures, known in Irkutsk: the founder of the edition “protoirei” priest P.Gromov, since 1871 – “arkhimandrit”archbishop Modest, since 1878 - archbishop Grigorii, since 1888 - priest Vinogradov, since 1895 -archbishop Evsevii, since 1897 - priest Podgorbunskii, since 1904 - archbishop Nikon, since 1906 - priest I.Drozdov, since 1915 - archbishop Sofronii.

"Siberia" -a weekly public-literary newspaper - causes a constant interest of the researchers of history and culture of Irkutsk presently. It was published from 1873 to 1887. Its founders were public figures, known in Irkutsk: Klinder, W.I.Wagin, Tyumenzev, Blocks, M.V.Zagoskin.

Especially popular among Irkutsk inhabitants was a weekly literary - political newspaper "The eastern review" (published in St.-Petersburg since 1882, since 1888 - in Irkutsk). It was considered to be one of the best provincial newspapers, read and subscribed even abroad: in China, America, France, Switzerland, Germany, Portugal, Japan. It stopped its existence in 1906.

From 1886 to 1905 there was an appendix to "To the Eastern review" - magazine "Siberian collection". The editors: N.M.Yadrinzev, since 1889 V.A.Oshurkov, N.A.Ushakov, I.G.Sheshunov, since 1895 I.I.Popov.

"Siberian collection" - supplement to the newspaper "Eastern Reviw" Proceedings of Eastern-Siberian Russian Geographical Society

The scientific life of the region was reflected in "The news of the Siberian department of the imperial Russian geographical society" (since 1878 Eastern-Siberian) - scientific-literary magazine came off the press since 1870. It was first of such kind in Siberia periodic edition. The materials of scientific researches (history, ethnography, geology and natural conditions of region) were published in it. The editors: A.F.Usolzev, since 1878 M.V.Zagoskin, since 1882 N.A.Agapitov, since 1885 M.A.Pisarev, since 1887 – a governor of department business.

Book shop of Makushin and Posokhin in Irkutsk. Photo from S.Medvedev's book "Irkutsk on postcards"

In 1893 P.I.Makushin opened a special shop in Irkutsk, where it was possible to get not only fresh editions, but also annual complete sets of previous ones. An interest of the townspeople in printed production was so great, that Makushin and Posokhin opened a branch of a book-selling firm in the city. Even a special stone building was built, where then the edition of the newspaper "The Eastern-Siberian truth" was placed for a long time.

Irkutsk understood and loved literature. Therefore, new products of periodic editions were hotly discussed in numerous circles for a long time.

The specified editions and tens of others, came off the press in Irkutsk, reflected political, business, cultural and spiritual life of the city. N.S.Romanov compiled a “Catalogue of periodic press of Irkutsk from 1856 to 1917" where 137 magazines and newspapers were mentioned. The most part of them is kept today in the funds of the Zonal scientific library of Irkutsk State University. Today they represent a bibliographic rarity and a valuable source for the city scientists.

In the period from 1917 to 1990 there was a big number of periodic editions in Irkutsk. Most popular and durable of them appeared to be the newspapers "The Eastern-Siberian Pravda (Truth)" and “The Soviet youth". The main newspaper of the region "The Eastern-Siberian Pravda" has been published since April 30, 1917. In its first years of existence it changed the title several times: "Power of labor", "The Siberian truth", "Unity". Later the newspaper returned its initial title, which it has today.

On June 7 1924 the first number of the newspaper "The Soviet youth" was published. It is possible to define the youth newspaper "Young Siberian" as its predecessor, which came off the press in 1921-1922. "The Soviet youth" had a constant success among different generations of Irkutsk readers. In August 1997 the newspaper merged with an advertising edition "Number one". “SM (Soviet youth)-NUMBER one" is its current title".

In the same period of time there were also other periodic editions. Many enterprises and establishments published large-circulation newspapers ("Irkutsk university ", "Hooter", "Mettalist (Metal man)" and others). Irkutsk magazines had large significance: scientific ("News of Biology-Geography Institute under Irkutsk State University and others), professional (for example "Siberian law notes") and public-political ("Communist" 1920-1925).

Among the magazines - long-livers one can name the literary - art and political almanac "Siberia". It was founded by Irkutsk and Chita literary organization of Russian Socialist Federative Republic in 1935. It received a title "New Siberia" at the beginning, then in 1935-1970 - "Angara", and since 1971 came off the press under the title "Siberia".

Magazine "Zemlya Irkutskaya" (Irkutsk land) "Irkutsk" - supplement of the newspaper "Vostochno-Sibirskaya pravda" Newspaper "Ecomonics. Law. Management"

On October 1 1999 the Committee of the press at the administration of Irkutsk region had a registration of more than 30 titles of magazines and more than 120 titles of newspapers, came off on the territory of the region. The fact that a rather small territory (in a scale of the country) publishes more than 150 titles of the periodic editions, means both an advanced publishing-poligraphic base and a variety of reader's interests. All spectrum of the periodic editions of the region can be conditionally divided into several blocks.

1. Public-political editions.

The newspapers: "The Eastern-Siberian Pravda", "Russian East", "Event", "Week - press".

2. The editions, illuminating condition of business, industry, trade.

The newspapers: "Banks. Taxes. Finance", "Business", "Business Irkutsk", "Economy. Law. Management".

The magazines: "Business - class", "Goods and prices", "Supermarket".

3. Literary - art and historical-regional editions.

The newspapers: "Green lamp", "Irkutsk woman".

The magazines: "Irkutsk land", "Siberia", "Irkutsk olden time", "Stones", "Talzy", "A little Siberian".

4. Editions of the higher educational institutions:

The newspapers: "Irkutsk university"; "Economy. Law. Management”.

The magazines: "Historical-economic magazine ; "Bulletin of Irkutsk State Technical University", "Siberian medical magazine”, "Siberian law bulletin"(Law institute at ISU).

5. The editions, directed at satisfaction of informational interests of different categories of readers.

The newspapers: "SM-NUMBER one", "Be healthy", "Dog-show", "Channel 007", "A medic", "Computer review", "Grocery shop", " Karate school ", "Garden and kitchen garden", "12 months".

The magazines: "Domostroi (House business)", "Women of Siberia ", "Sibscana".

6. Directory editions.

The newspapers: "Real Estate of Irkutsk", "Buy - sell", "VS Inform", "All announcements of Irkutsk", "What is the price?", "Coachman".

The magazines: "Irkutsk regional news", "Irkutsk yellow pages", "Who is who in Irkutsk and Irkutsk region".

 
 
 
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