Essay

Literary Irkutsk

65 writers gave their names to streets, lanes, passages in Irkutsk. For example, there are streets of Gorkii and Herzen, Goncharov and Dostoevskii, Chekhov and Chernyhsevskii, Tolstoi, Pushkin, Lermontov …

Some writers never visited our region, but in their books they often devoted some pages to Irkutsk, the lake Baikal, the Angara … For example, a great satirist М.Е.Saltykov - Schedrin. Still in 1946г. Irkutsk professor S.F.Baranov expressed an idea, that one of the sources of "Stories of one city " was "the Irkutsk Chronicles", composed by P.I.Pezhemskii, and originally published in a magazine "Contemporary". Or let us take A.P.Chekhov. He wrote about Irkutsk from his own experience. The memorial board on the house, along the street Furye, 1, reminds us of Chekhov’s staying on June 6, 1890 in the hotel "the Amur yard" to rest on the way to the Sakhalin island. The writer liked the city very much. In one of the letters he was writing: "Among all Siberian cities Irkutsk is the best one… " "Irkutsk is the excellent city. It is a cultural one. Theatre, museum, urban garden with music, good hotels … There are no ugly fences, ridiculous signboards and waste grounds with inscriptions, prohibiting a stop there… In Irkutsk there are spring-supported roads. It is better than Ekaterinburg and Tomsk. Quite Europe".

Irkutsk streets and schools were named after prose writers and poets. Irkutsk engineer K.V. Mital presented a project of a stone two-storied house for a school named after N.V.Gogol to the city administration. In 1899 Znamenskii suburb got the Schapovskii street, Rabochee-craft area – the Potanin, in Glazkovo suburb - Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol …

In the honour of Siberian writers there are the streets Zagoskin, Omulevskaya, Yadrinzev, Vaginskaya in the city.

The various literary holidays were constantly arranged. Irkutsk inhabitants could visit a surprising exhibition … of the autographs of writers in 1911. It was opened in a hall of the Hiller’s theatre on August 27. There were autographs of all old and young writers: Turgenev, Schedrin, Chekhov, Polonskii, Ostrovskii … Besides the letters, many photos and drawings, cartoons on the writers were shown. It was possible to find both poetic pranks, and humorous short stories, many remarks about different public or literary events in all the autographs collection ".

In 1913 while having an exhibition of olden time, the manuscripts of Pisemskii and Schapov were demonstrated.

Irkutsk inhabitants had a special attitude for Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoi. His stories were frequently on a stage of drama theatre. Such performances as "The power of darkness ", "The results of enlightenment", "An alive dead" attracted so many spectators, the building could accommodate. The drama "An alive dead " was published in a local newspaper "Voice of Siberia".

The building of a former book shop Makushin and Posokhin, pioneers of publishing business in Siberia still stands in the city today. Both of them were the passionate propagandists of Russian book.

Russian writer I.A.Goncharov visited the White House, whose books were too popular among the townspeople. The author of "Breakage", "Oblomov" after a long round-the-world travel on a frigate "Pallada", on his way home stayed in the house with the Irkutsk general - governor of East Siberia, duke Muravyov-Amurskii.

A historical monument is the building of former Irkutsk grammar school (there is air technical school there now), where future writers - Kalashnikov- a founder of the Siberian historical novel, Schukin, Mikheev, Fedorov-Omulevskii and others studied. The building of a former spiritual seminary has been kept, where well-known publicists and writers A.P.Schapov and M.V.Zagoskin studied.

It is necessary to mention a former school № 6 (Volodarskii street, 1), its schoolboys under guidance of a poet I.I. Molchanov-Sibirskii wrote a famous book "Base of the snub-nosed", which was highly assessed by M. Gorkii. And it is impossible to miss a building, where the House of writers named after P.P.Petrov is now. Among Irkutsk inhabitants it is known as "the House with lions".

The literary Irkutsk is proud of many literary names. Today it is impossible to imagine history and present of Russian literature without them. Irkutsk writers have accepted art competition from their predecessors - writers of democratic trend in Eastern Siberia.

We will name known Irkutsk masters of a word from different times.

I.T.Kalashnikov (1797-1863).

The title of the novel by I.Kalashnikov "The daughter of the merchant Dgolobov" I.T.Kalashnikov

A Siberian, born in Irkutsk. In 1823 he moved in St. Petersburg.

In 1834 a story "Banished" was published.

The novels: "In a praise of perfect sex", "A reading book for village schools pupils", "Notes of Irkutsk inhabitant".

Known articles: "The Telma factory" (The Kazan news, 1817, №15-16); a number of articles was published in "Son of the fatherland" in 1829-1831.

In the 1860s he wrote "The notes of Irkutsk inhabitant”. They were published in "To the Russian old" (1905, VII-IX). The novel "Daughter of a merchant Zholobov " was translated into German language.

He died in St. Petersburg.

N.A.Polevoi (1796-1846).

N.A.Polevoi The title of the magazine "Moscow Telegraph"

The native of Irkutsk, where he lived until 1811.

The first story "Sokhatyi" – an enthusiastic picture of Siberian nature.

Since 1817 he began the literary work in Kursk. In 1820 Polevoi moved in Moscow and was engaged in a literary work. In 1825 he founded a magazine "The Moscow telegraph".

There were popular drama "Parasha is a Siberian", a historical drama "Ermak Timofeevich or Volga and Siberia", "Jokes of Siberian bravery".

Belinskii positively assessed many books of N.A.Polevoi as a prose writer, playwright, historian, literary criticism.

Polevoi died in St. Petersburg.

V.I. Wagin (1823-1900).

The publicist, historian and geographer V.I.Wagin was born and spent all his life in Irkutsk.

In 1847 in "The St.-Petersburg news" he published an article about famine in some areas of the Irkutsk region. A two-volume book "Historical news about duke М.М.Speranskii’s work in Siberia” was published in St.-Petersburg in 1872.

In 1875 Wagin took the duties of an editor - publisher of the Irkutsk newspaper "Siberia". Wagin published a number of articles in the editions of the Eastern-Siberian department of Russian Geographical Society.

Wagin was not only a publicist and historian, but also a prose writer and memoirs writer. His memoirs "The forties in Irkutsk" is about life of the Irkutsk society in the 1840s. A valuable historical-cultural monument of gone epoch is a diary of V.I.Wagin, kept in the Irkutsk state archive.

I.I.Molchanov-Siberskii (1903-1958).

I.I.Molchanov-Siberskii

Was born in 1903 in Vladivostok. When a two year boy he was brought in Irkutsk.

Studied in Irkutsk preliminary gymnasium (4 classes), then in a technical school and in the railway technical school. In 1930 graduated from the department of the Soviet construction and rights in Irkutsk State University.

The first verses were written in 1924. In 1932 the first book of verses "Conquered Sogdindon" was published. The subsequent collections of verses - "Birth of pleasure" (1934), "Verses" (1935), "The dark blue Sayans" (1937), "Border in East" (1939). The book of verses for children "Lovely potato" (1933).

I.P.Utkin(1903-1944).

Was born on May 14, 1903 in Khingan. In Irkutsk since 13 years old.

Poems: "Red-army soldier" (1922), "Such life" (1924), "First book of verses" (1927-1931) - five editions, "A story about a red in Motel" (1926), poem "Salt" (1932).

Died in an air accident, coming back from the front.

Valentin Grigoryevich Rasputin – a well-known writer.

The title of the book by V.Rasputin "Siberia, Siberia…" Valentin G.Rasputin

Was born on March 15, 1937 in Ust-Uda, a regional centre of Irkutsk area. Graduated from the History-Philology department of Irkutsk state university in 1959.

Then worked as a journalist in Siberia. In 1957 the first note “There is no time to miss” appeared in a newspaper "The Soviet youth".

The first collection of the stories is "I forgot to ask Lyoshka" (1961).

The stories: "Money for Maria" (1967), "Last date" (1970), "Live and remember" (1971), "Farewell with “Matyora”" (1976), "Fire" (1985) received a high appraise and put him in a row of the best writers of his generation.

Since 1975 he is a part of the edition group of a magazine “Our contemporary", in 1977 and 1987 he received the State premiums of the USSR. In 1987 the golden medal of the Socialist Work Hero and the Lenin Order were received. In 1995 he received a rank "The Honorable citizen of Irkutsk". In 1996 Rasputin became a winner of the international premium "Moscow - Penne". In 1997 the premium of the fund of the Sacred Appraised Apostle Andrei Pervozvannyi "For Faith and Fidelity" was given to him.

The name of V.G.Rasputin is indissolubly connected with Siberia, Irkutsk, where he lives and works. His publicist activity is penetrated with love "to the small mother land", struggle for preservation of its natural, historical, cultural heritage and spiritual revival of the people.

The stories of last years: "In a hospital" (1995), "Father’s limits" (1997), "Unexpected" (1997), "A new profession" (1998), "On the motherland", "Log hut" (1999).

Alexander Vasilyevich Vampilov (1937-1972) is a known playwright and writer.

Alexander V. Vampilov

Was born in a settlement Kutulik of the Alarskii area of Irkutsk region, where his childhood and youth passed. In 1960 graduated from the Philology Department of Irkutsk State University.

In 1958 in a newspaper "Irkutsk university" his first story "Confluence of circumstances" was published, signed with a nickname "A.Sanin". Since this year the stories, scenes of A.Vampilov were published in Irkutsk newspapers "Irkutsk university", "Lenin’s precepts", "The Soviet youth".

In 1959-1964 he worked in Irkutsk newspaper "The Soviet youth", having a post of literary employee, associate head of the department, secretary in charge. In 1965-1967 Vampilov studied in Moscow Higher literary courses. He was accepted in the Union of the Soviet writers. In 1969 for the first time in the country the play "The Eldest son" was put on a stage of Irkutsk drama theatre of Okhlopkova.

On August 17, 1972 A.V.Vampilov tragically died. The lake Baikal took him on the eve of the 35th birthday.

Vampilov wrote six plays: "The House with windows in a field" (1963), "Farewell in June" (1964), "The Eldest son" (1965), "Duck hunting" (1967), "Provincial anecdotes" (first - "Twenty minutes with an angel" - 1962, second - "History with “mertapag”" - 1968), "Past summer in Chulimsk" (1971). It seems that there are not so many. But a talent is not measured by an amount of compositions. Vampilov created the theatre; his dramatic art was included in the repertoire of theatres of the world, and it became a mark in a development of Russian theatre.

In November 1972 А.Vampilov was awarded with the premium of Irkutsk comsomol organization of I. Utkin’s name (in shifts).

In the honor of the 50th anniversary of the playwright on May 8,1987 the Irkutsk theatre of young spectator was named after Vampilov. In his native Kutulik a museum of Vampilov and a library were opened. The fund of the library was gifted by the Union of the writers USSR. The library is named after Vampilov.

On August 17, 1973 a monument on Vampilov’s tomb was opened. A memorial board on the house where he lived (Irkutsk, Dalnevostochnaya street, 57 "a") was put.

Mark Sergeev (1926-1997).

Mark Sergeev The title of the book by M.Sergeev "The fates, connected with Irkutsk"

Was born in the Ukraine, in a city Enakievo on May 11, 1926. But all his life and creative destiny were connected with Irkutsk. His childhood had a nomadic destiny: the parents moved from one construction site of the socialism to another - cities and villages of the Ukraine, the Far East, and finally, Irkutsk. When 14 years old he published his first poem here, then became a writer, journalist, cinema person, scientist. From this city he was called in 1943 for the army, and returned here after the war. In Irkutsk at his 16 years old age Sergeev became a student of university, he graduated from after demobilization in 1949, and in the following year – 1950 his first book was published.

Apparently, his childhood laid a simplicity of a soul dialogue with people. He was an easy-going person. And Mark could be seen on all large construction sites of Siberia, in the first tents of young cities, on a virgin soil, in foundation pit of Bratsk, at first constructions of Shelikhov, on the blocking of the Yenisei river, on a boat, floating on the rough Kazyra to those places, where the track of the pioneers "Abakan - Taishet " - Koshurnikov, Zhuravlyov and Stofatov goes. At last, in Zvezdnyi, Kuvykta, Tynda and other sites of the Baikal-Amur railroad. He wrote reports, verses - sketches, documentary books. But he always remained a poet, varying from book to book, remaining dedicated only to correct three themes, elected by his soul once and for all the time: Siberia, Pushkin, the Decembrists.

As the writer Mark Sergeev is known by the books of "Rail tracks", "A Ballad about poplars", "Carving", "Connection of times", "Evening birds". About 20 poetic collections, issued in our country and abroad, belong to him.

As the prose writer Mark Sergeev is known for the books "Pen (nib) of a poet", "Life and bad luck of Abram Petrov – an African server of Peter the Great", "All life is one wonderful moment", "Feat of a disinterested love" and "A faithful sister to misfortune", devoted to A.S.Pushkin and the Decembrists. He was a chairman associate of the Commission on propagation of creativity of A.S.Pushkin committee of the Ministry of Culture of Russia. He did much for the Decembrists museums openings in Seleginsk, Petrovsk-Zabaikalskii, Chita. Together with historians F.A.Kudryavzev and S.F.Koval he stood at the sources of the first in Russia Memorial Decembrist complex in Irkutsk and unique series of the books of the Eastern-Siberian book publishing house - "The Polar star".

The first book of Mark Sergeev was a collection of cheerful poems for children. About 60 children's books of the writer were published.

The books of Mark Sergeev are published in Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Novosibirsk, Moscow, in former Soviet republics - Georgia, Armenia, Lithuania, Estonia, in foreign countries - Mongolia and Japan, Yugoslavia and Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria and in other countries. These books are a part of European anthologies of poetry.

Mark Sergeev is known in Siberia as the man, having multilateral literary, cultural - educational, publicist activity. By all his life and creativity he is connected with the city on the Angara river.

"Irkutsk. Above the fast Angara river.
Not far from Baikal – a morning miracle, -
Your design whim of houses,
Your swarm of blessed smokes
Both summer and winter suit you,
Both appleness of snows, and freshness of apple-trees,
And the Angara transparent rebellious nature,
History itself is good to you …".

(From a poem "Three centuries" of Mark Sergeev).

One more feature of Mark Sergeev is cinema. He is the author of the scripts and texts of about 60 documentary films. One of them is "The middle of the Earth" (1962) entered the speech of Irkutsk inhabitants as a synonym of the native city. Many people talk about Irkutsk as “The middle of the Earth", not suspecting origin of the words.

There were no large regional or urban events in the field of culture, which was not attended by Mark Sergeev. For 15 years he headed Irkutsk literary organization, from the moment of birth (1987) of the Fund of culture in the country according to the initiative of an academician D.S.Likhachyov. He was a chairman of Irkutsk branch and member of the Russian fund presidium. For 30 years Sergeev was a member of the presidium of Irkutsk branch of this society. He gave much energy to the protection of the Irkutsk old. He was also a deserved worker of culture of Russia, the Honorable citizen of city of Irkutsk, winner of the youth premium of Utkin, member of the Union of the writers, the Union of film-makers, the Union of the journalists. The name of the poet and writer was given to Regional children's library. The memorial board on the house, where Mark Sergeev, lived was nailed.

 
 
 
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