Archaeological and historical findings prove that Olkhon Island was inhabited by people dating back from the Lithic Age to the beginning of the 20th century. By 1993, 143 archaeological type-sites had been known: caves with the traces of habitation of ancient people, petroglyphs, the so-called cleavages – traces of stone dressing, ancient settlements, sites, burials, religious and fortified constructions. The most remarkable constructions are ruins of walls of an ancient fortress crossing Cape Khorgoy in its narrowest part (I. Chersky found it in 1879). These walls are likely to have served as a fortification against nomads or have been religious constructions for demarcation of public and sacral space which was inhabited by gods and spirits. For example, people burials in a form of burial mound covered with stony plates were discovered at Cape Shibetey behind such a wall. Historians believe that sanctuary settlements and burials on Olkhon Island were built by kurykans, an ancient Turkic people inhabiting Pribaikalye in the 6-9th centuries.
There is no other place on Lake Baikal but Olkhon Island to which so many articles and books are devoted (“Olkhon as a Native Place”, “Profane and Sacral Worlds of Olkhon Buryats, etc.). There is also an interesting local history museum at school in Khuzhir where it is possible to get acquainted with the collection of ancient items which demonstrate the way of life and culture of islanders. This museum was founded by Nikolay Revyakin, a teacher of geography and local historian, and his students.