Olkhon Island is the only Baikal island where people have been living from times immemorial till nowadays. Over 13 thousand years ago the island was already inhabited. A Paleolithic type-site was found here during archaeological excavations. At present, about 1500 people live in small settlements on Olkhon Island. The largest is Khuzhir (about 1200 people). Buryats and Russians are the main inhabitants of the island, mainly fishermen and cattle-breeders. There is only one industrial enterprise on the island – Malomorsky Fish Factory which is the largest of the Baikal region.